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Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus Olaus Magnus, , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hicke, who published his Linguarum vett.
During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.
The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.
The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.
Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.
In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.
The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.
The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.
In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.
The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of the Germanic master race.
The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.
Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.
Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.
The character is featured in the Marvel Studios film Thor and its sequels Thor: The Dark World and Thor: The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series.
Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.
Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.
Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.
Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.
The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.
This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.
They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.
The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden. The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway.
This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.
There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century  as referring to the skulls of the slain.
Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Haplogroup I-M defined by specific genetic markers on the Y chromosome mutation occurs with the greatest frequency among Scandinavian males: Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.
A specialised genetic and surname study in Liverpool showed marked Norse heritage: Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Old Norse and The Norse Sagas. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.
Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.
The longship facilitated far-reaching expeditions, but the Vikings also constructed several other types of ships. Viking Age arms and armour.
Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks and Volga trade route. Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Did Swedish Vikings really found Kyiv Rus?
Visby Sweden , n. Skeat , published in , defined Viking: Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF.
Retrieved 20 April Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p. Retrieved 17 March Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: A reply to Harald Bjorvand".
Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen. Boas 13 May The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Saga-book of the Viking Society.
A private homepage project. National Museum of Denmark. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Viking era AD— AD" www. The Scandinavians in history Pg.
Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings , Penguin Scandinavia and Europe AD — Archeologists Find Gateway to the Viking Empire".
Retrieved 27 February Retrieved 20 December A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.
Archived from the original on Meccan trade and the rise of Islam. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. James Graham-Campbell and Gareth Williams, pp.
Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 1 March Archived from the original on 4 March An Encyclopaedia Pamela Crabtree, ed.
An Encyclopedia Illustrated ed. Archived from the original PDF on 19 April Retrieved 22 February Secrets of Viking Ships Viking Longship Osprey Publishing, Oxford, Retrieved 23 June Folkekost og sundhedsforhold i gamle dage.
Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur. Diet and health in previous times, as revealed in the Old Norse Literature, especially the Icelandic Sagas.
Danish Journal of Archaeology. Retrieved 19 June Ribe Vikingecenter in Danish. In southern Scandinavia ie. Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 19 April Garland Reference Library of the Humanities.
Archived from the original on 21 April Archived from the original on 14 July Food — Fruit, Grain and Vegetable. The Jorvik Viking Centre. University of Southern Denmark.
Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 30 March Journal of Archaeological Science: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World.
Maps of trade routes. Retrieved 24 February Barbarians come to Market: Glass Beads of the Viking Age. An inquiry into the glass beads of the Vikings.
Sourced information and pictures. Apollon — research magazine. Silk for The Vikings , Oxbow Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings.
Retrieved 28 February Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress. A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland , p.
Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 10 April Annals of Human Genetics. Estimating the Proportions of Norse and Gaelic Ancestry". The American Journal of Human Genetics.
Bowden, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20 November ". Molecular Biology and Evolution. Archived from the original PDF on 1 September In Brink, Stefan; Price, Neil.
The Varangian Guard — Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland. University of Minnesota Press. Educational Company of Ireland 10 October Hall, Richard Andrew The World of the Vikings.
The series began filming in July at Ashford Studios which is a newly built facility in Ireland. On April 5, , History renewed Vikings for a ten-episode second season.
Two new series regulars were announced on June 11, This season was produced by Steve Wakefield and Keith Thompson. The production team for this season includes casting directors Frank and Nuala Moiselle, costume designer Joan Bergin, visual effects supervisors Julian Parry and Dominic Remane, stunt action designers Franklin Henson and Richard Ryan, composer Trevor Morris , production designer Mark Geraghty, editors Aaron Marshall for the first, third, fifth, seventh and ninth episodes, and Tad Seaborn for the second, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth episodes, and cinematographer PJ Dillon.
Norwegian music group Wardruna provided much of the background music to the series. Michael Hirst announced plans for the fourth season before the third season had begun airing.
Doan portrays Yidu, a Chinese character who has a major role in the first half of the fourth season. Toronto Blue Jays player Josh Donaldson is a fan of the Vikings series and in January , it was announced that he would have a guest appearance in the fourth season of the show as "Hoskuld".
At the same time that the series was renewed for a fifth season, it was announced that Irish actor Jonathan Rhys Meyers would be joining the cast,  as Heahmund, a "warrior bishop".
Vikings creator Michael Hirst, explained: The antecedents of the Knights Templar: They believed totally in Christianity and the message, and yet, on the battlefield, they were totally berserk.
He is chosen by Floki to lead an expedition to Iceland to set up a colony. Russian actor Danila Kozlovsky is set to join the series for the sixth season, as Oleg of Novgorod , the 10th century Varangian east European Vikings ruler of the Rus people.
Vikings premiered on March 3, , in Canada  and the United States. In the UK, Vikings premiered on May 24, , where it was exclusively available on the streaming video-on-demand service LoveFilm.
He also suggested that the way the series emphasized "a core pride and nobility in this tribe of thugs" reflected "just another iteration of Tony Soprano ".
According to Nielsen , the series premiere drew six million viewers in the US, topping all broadcast networks among viewers aged 18 to An earlier claim of over eighteen million viewers was later retracted by the channel with an apology.
In Canada, the premiere had 1. The first season averaged , viewers. Lars Walker, in the magazine The American Spectator , criticized its portrayal of early Viking Age government represented by Earl Haraldson as autocratic rather than essentially democratic.
Monty Dobson, a historian at Central Michigan University , criticised the depiction of Viking Age clothing, but went on to say that fictional shows like Vikings could still be a useful teaching tool.
Many characters are based on or inspired by real people from history or legend, and the major events portrayed are broadly drawn from history.
However, events from over a hundred years have been condensed, so that people who could never have met are shown as of similar age, with the historical events amended for dramatic effect.
For example, season one leads up to the attack on Lindisfarne Abbey of before the real Rollo was born , but in season three the same characters at roughly the same ages participate in the Siege of Paris of By this time, Ecbert was dead, and King Alfred the Great was already king, yet he is still portrayed as a child in season four.
Rollo is portrayed having his followers killed, and fighting his fellow Vikings, whereas in history they were granted what became Normandy and continued to co-operate with their Norse kinsmen.
Furthermore, most of the principal characters are portrayed as being from Norway, while according to primary sources they would most likely have been Danes.
Little is known about Viking religious practice  and so its depiction is largely creative. A historical account of the Vikings would reach hundreds, occasionally thousands, of people.
Zenescope partnered with the History Channel to create a free Vikings comic book based on the series. It was first distributed at Comic-Con and by comiXology in February On January 4, , alongside the announcement that the sixth season of the series would be its final season, it was announced that Hirst and MGM Television were developing a spin-off series with writer Jeb Stuart.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the British documentary television series, see Vikings TV series. List of Vikings characters. List of Vikings episodes.
List of awards and nominations received by Vikings. Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved March 14, Retrieved March 12, Irish Film and Television Network.
Retrieved January 6, Retrieved January 5, Archived from the original on Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved August 4, As well as being a fearless warrior, Ragnar embodies the Norse traditions of devotion to the gods: Written by History Channel.
Be thankful for what we got.. The story of Ragnar, the acting of Travis Fimmel and the extraordinary detail made the first three seasons compelling.
My god, the guy had what less than twenty lines and stole the show. And then the bottom fell out of the show. And I"m sick of Lagertha and Boneless.
Oddly enough, a secondary character, King Harald, had potential. But give the show credit -- remember how great the first three seasons were.
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Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Vikings transports us to the brutal and mysterious world of Ragnar Lothbrok, a Viking warrior and farmer who yearns to explore - and raid - the distant shores across the ocean.
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